LNG processes

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Natural Gas We simplify complexities in natural gas and LNG processes

Fuel for thought

2 Competences in Gas



“First serve, then earn!” This comes from our company founder, George H. Endress, who believed that customers always come first – that we must meet the challenges of customers to be successful. This principle leads us just as strongly today. Our port folio of instruments, solutions and services is tailored to address your specific challenges. These include ensuring the safety of your plant, personnel and the environment; boosting productivity, and improving process reliability and availability. We know that safety allows no compromise. The complex infrastructures and processes across the natural gas value chain hold many potential hazards, hence safety cannot be taken for granted. The rapid growth in gas trade and globally developing integrated gas market are challenging the industry as it balances growth and productivity with maintaining and improving safety outcomes. Varying compositions of raw natural gas and fluctuating process and environmental conditions create challenges for the efficient operation of natural gas processing, liquefac tion trains and related facilities. Your competitiveness demands greater measurement accuracy and enhanced control of all processes along the gas value chain. Converting natural gas to LNG in a liquefaction plant typically involves four main processes with critical mea surement points: pretreatment, acid gas removal and dehydration, fractionation to remove heavy hydrocarbons, and liquefaction. Each of these operations requires reli able measurement and tight process control to ensure the continuous uninterrupted operation needed for on-time loading and shipment of LNG. Our offering enables you to reduce startup times, minimize unforeseen shutdowns and ensure the highest plant availability. Your challenges, our mission

700 million tons expected growth in LNG by 2040

Up to 10x higher precision in LNG composition measurement using Raman analyzer

>USD 200K potential cost of a 2-day shutdown of the molecular sieve in a natural gas plant. For an LNG plant, depending on the capacity, this cost could climb to over $1 million

4 Competences in Gas



Fuel for thought We reduce complexities to help you perform, comply and thrive

Accurate, reliable measurement of critical process parameters sets the basis for safe and efficient operations across the gas value chain. Our broad range of best-fit instruments and solutions provide real-time data and the process control you need to solve your safety challenges. Ensure plant safety

From natural gas processing and liquefaction to LNG stor age, distribution and regasification, from new projects to plant upgrades, we have the application expertise to help you succeed. Our broad portfolio of accurate, reliable instrumentation, deep industry experience, and our services and solutions make Endress+Hauser the ideal partner to sharpen your competitive edge and optimize plant performance.

Although energy markets can be volatile and unpredictable, your operations cannot be. Maximizing safety, plant availability and the efficiency of operations are the key challenges for the oil and gas indus try. They drive your need for an ever-better automation to ensure accurate monitoring of key process parameters and tighter process control.

Optimize productivity

Improve your competitiveness with field instrumentation, solutions and services that fulfil your need for greater control and productivity of your natural gas pro cesses and ensure you meet gas quality specifications.

Relying on our industry knowledge and skills, we work together with our custom ers to find the best solution for every application

Customers around the world gain a wealth of information from their processes by using our products, solutions and services

Our field instrumentation and network of global and local experts support your need for continuous uninterrupted operation of LNG processing operations with precise, reliable process control and automation from gas pre-treatment to liquefaction. Enable high plant availability

As a family-owned company since 1953, we are a reliable partner in every respect – for our customers, employees and shareholders

Want to know more about our Gas expertise? Then visit us on www.endress.com/oil-gas


Competences in Gas



How we can support you From natural gas processing and liquefaction to LNG storage and distribution Endress+Hauser is there for you throughout the entire plant lifecycle

LNG transportation

Exploration & production

Natural gas liquefaction (LNG)

Gas processing plant

Regasification of LNG


Compressor station

Gas export and distri bution

NGL export

Small scale LNG

NGL distribution


LNG truck loading

Petrochemical plant

Natural gas liquids (NGL)

Underground gas storage

Local gas company

Optimized production • Reliable level measurement in gas sweetening units • On-line monitoring of trace level H 2 O • Ultrasonic flow measurement in natural gas processing plants • Compositional measurement of liquefied natural gas (LNG) • Utilities: analytical solutions for water and steam • LNG custody transfer truck loading-offloading skids


Safety in plant operation • H 2 O, H 2 S, CO 2 , and O 2 measure ments for pipeline integrity • Chemical injection skids for gas pipelines • LNG tank gauging & operational safety • Open and redundant solutions for LNG inventory management

High plant availability • Flow measurement for en trained gas applications • Improved low flow measure ment with Vortex flowmeters • Temperature measurement in gas processing • On-line monitoring of H 2 S and CO 2 in gas sweetening • LNG bunkering

Power plants




Competences in Gas

Ensure plant safety


Ensure plant safety Minimize process risks with best-fit instrumentation & solutions for natural gas & LNG

H 2 O, H 2 S, CO 2 , and O 2 measurements for pipeline integrity

Measurement of H 2 O, H 2 S, CO 2 , and O 2 in natural gas pipelines at production and gathering sites, custody transfer points, compression stations, storage facilities, and in distribution systems is critically important to protect pipelines from corrosion and meet gas quality specifications. TDLAS and Quenched Fluorescence (QF) analyzers have proven to be highly effective for con tinuous on-line monitoring of these contaminants in natural gas pipelines. • High-resolution lasers provide selec tive and specific measurement of H 2 O, H 2 S, CO 2 in natural gas streams • No field calibration needed • Highly accurate measurement with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) - traceable factory calibration • Accurate O 2 measurements even when H 2 S is present, using Quenched Fluorescence technology

Chemical injection plays a vital role in the safe and efficient production and transport of natural gas. Corrosion inhibi tors are injected into pipelines to maintain and extend the lifetime of gas pipelines, while kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs) and methanol are used to prevent the formation of crystalline ice-like structures (Hydrates) that can plug pipe lines and disrupt gas flow. The effectiveness of these inhibi tors depends on injecting the right amount of chemicals. Chemical injection skids for gas pipelines

• Exactly measure injection rates in challenging conditions: accurate 2-wire technology Proline Promass A Coriolis mass flowmeters have high stability at very low flow rates, with a space-saving small footprint • Coriolis sensor is resistant to internal clogging thanks to its self-draining measuring tube • Prevent over or under pressurization to ensure effec tive injection with accurate, quick-response pressure measurement • Reliable guided radar level measurement with multi echo tracking and Heartbeat Technology

Functional safety by design - instruments you can rely on

Process control is only as good as the devices used. Our portfolio of instrumen tation and safety-related hardware & software is stringently designed to meet the needs of safe and reliable operation. Endress+Hauser has one of the most extensive SIL portfolios of IEC 61508-certified instruments for hazardous areas and safety applications created according to safety by design standards. • Proven experience of more than 10 million devices installed in safety-related applications • Over 65 years of experience in safety critical applications • 18+ years of IEC 61508 functional safety standards for quality, safety and reliability applied in applications

20% cost per injection point can be saved by accurate measurement of chemicals by Coriolis technology


Competences in Gas

Ensure plant safety


Global service support When it comes to critical

management, on-site com missioning, troubleshooting, installations and a technical service advice and support over the phone. Customer service at a glance: • Commissioning and installation • Project management • Preventive maintenance • Spare part express service • Training • Helpdesk • Online documentation • Asset management services • Calibration services

control points, properly in stalled measurement instru mentation ensures safe and reliable operation. Our service experts, who are available around world, have the exper tise and experience needed to safely integrate your instru ments into your processes. Our service teams offer comprehensive maintenance contracts, Instrument Man agement Solutions (IMS), workshop repairs, spares

24/7 visibility and control with our LNG inventory management solutions

Open and redundant solutions for LNG inventory management

LNG tank gauging & operational safety

The Tankvision LMS inventory management system enables reli able, real-time LNG management. It has an open and redundant data system and is a multi-user system with remote access capability. • Rollover prediction software al lows you to visualize the changing temperature, density and strati fied layer thickness in a tank. The software predicts rollover and

enables upfront counter-measures. The change in boil-off rate and vapor pressure can also be visual ized with time. • The cool down and leak detec tion sensors, located around the base, sides and roof of the LNG tank are used to detect any abnormalities in the shell insula tion that may cause product leak. They are particularly used during the cool down and operation.

• Constant primary level measurement or redun dant operation with high precision Proservo level gauge • 24/7 plant safety with independent servo or radar gauges for high level alarm • SIL2/3-certified • Monitor density changes in different LNG layers with Level Temperature Density (LTD) gauges • Manage LNG gas boil-off with highly accurate pressure transmitters. Multi-point temperature measurement is used for cool down and leakage detection

A typical liquefied natural gas tank requires a range of instruments to measure liquid level and density, liquid and vapor temperature and pressure, skin temperature and more. For safe operation you must also make sure that two layers of different LNG densities are not rapidly mixing with the effect of releasing large amounts of gas – known as rollover. Ensure safe operation of your plant and the highest inventory trans parency with best-fit instrumentation for LNG storage tanks.


Competences in Gas

Optimized production


Optimize productivity Enhance your productivity in natural gas processing, liquefaction and LNG facilities

Ultrasonic flow measurement in natural gas processing plants Reliable flow measurement is crucial for optimized natural gas processing and to minimize operational challenges. Inherent challenges exist due to wet gas conditions and varying compositions of feed gas. Accurate measurement of gas flow into dehydration and sweetening units is essential for better process efficiency and to minimize problems associated with re-boiler overload and chemical losses. • Process Ultrasonic gas flowmeter from Endress+Hauser precisely measures dry and wet gases in all gas processing steps including sweetening, dehydration, fractionation, and NGL recovery • Greater accuracy and process control thanks to real-time pressure and temperature compensation • Powerful process control from advanced gas analysis including volume flow, corrected volume flow, mass flow, energy flow, calorific value, Wobbe index etc. • Process reliability and high operational safety thanks to continuous self-diagnosis and device verification with Heartbeat Technology

Sweet natural gas exiting the amine treatment unit is saturated with water vapor. Some water can be removed by passing the wet gas through a knock-out drum, followed by compression and cooling. Molecular sieve dehydration is then used to obtain the very low H 2 O concentrations (< 0.1 ppm) required for cryogenic processes in NGL recovery units and for LNG production. Our TDLAS analyzers support you in this task as they help detect adsorbent bed saturation and breakthrough. • Patented Differential Spectroscopy technique measures H 2 O at sub-ppm levels for rapid detection of adsorbent bed moisture breakthrough • Laser-based measurement is highly selective and accurate for H 2 O in natural gas and is unaffected by methanol and other contaminants • Integrated permeation tube supports automated analyzer validation checks On-line monitoring of trace-level H 2 O

Reliable level measurement in gas sweetening units

Raw natural gas from reservoirs contains varying amounts of acid gases (H 2 S and CO 2 ). Gas sweetening units remove acid gases us ing a chemical absorption process. A typical process unit includes contactor (absorption) and stripper (distillation) columns. Effec tive level control in these columns is vital for stable operation to ensure uniform flow of amine out of the unit. Guided wave radar technology offers unique benefits ensuring smooth operation and high productivity of the unit. • Reliable measurement even with changing product and process conditions • No maintenance: no moving parts unlike mechanical level instruments • Easy commissioning and diagnostics from HistoROM data management • Seamless integration into control or asset management systems

+20% extended cycle time can be gained between molecular sieve bed regeneration using TDLAS


Competences in Gas

Optimized production


LNG custody transfer truck loading-offloading skids LNG truck loading helps distribute natural gas in areas where there is no pipeline network connecting power plants, industrial and residential customers, and the transport sector. We offer complete design, engineering, procure ment and construction of LNG truck loading and unloading solutions, and a unique small footprint skid design with integrated LNG composition measurement and energy calculation. • Precise and reliable quantity measurement with Promass Coriolis mass flowmeter optimized for cryogenic applications • Fast, accurate measurement of LNG composition with a Kaiser Raman analyzer for measuring quantity and calorific value directly in the LNG stream. No need for a vaporizer or Gas Chromatograph (GC) • Compliance, credibility and acceptance: custody transfer approval and compliance of the entire system • Safety and ease of use ensures maximum throughput and system availability

Utilities: analytical solutions for water and steam

Water and steam play important roles in natural gas processing and liquefaction. Steam is used for power generation or as a heating medium – for example in solvent regenera tion in acid gas removal units, or regeneration gas for molecular sieve dehydration beds. To maximize process efficiency and safety, make up water, cooling water, and steam must meet specific quality specifications. We offer a wide portfolio of instrumentation dedicated to wa ter and steam analysis and treatment. • Make-up water: to maintain quality and avoid serious corrosion in steam sys tems, boiler feedwater requires specific

conditioning using parameters like turbidity, pH, conductivity and chlorine or ORP • Steam: to prevent pipeline corrosion and equip ment scaling, dissolved oxygen, pH and cation conductivity are important • Our ATEX Zone 2 Steam Water Analysis System (SWAS) panels have all the measuring technology needed to monitor a water/steam cycle • Ensure the highest reliability and uptime with Memosens intelligent digital sensor technology for liquid analysis • Connect up to 8 sensors for different parameters with the Liquiline multiparameter transmit ter platform , saving space and cost

Field Xpert SMT70 & SMT77 - next-generation universal device configuration tablet PC Device configuration is a big part of the everyday work of a maintenance engineer. Most handhelds are limited to a single protocol (e.g. HART) and limited to configuration only. Boost field productivity and safety with the rugged new tablet PC that brings powerful and streamlined management of all instruments in hazardous and non-hazardous areas to your fingertips. Save time and cost in tough environments with easy device configuration and verification, and enhanced connectivity. Optimize your systems and processes with solutions tailored to your needs. Reliable instrument and system combina tions, together with services help you overcome your challenges. Benefit from our complete offering from consulting, shared requirements analysis, commissioning and service during operation.

Optimized production


Competences in Gas

High plant availability


Enable high plant availability Boost reliability and minimize unforeseen shutdown and downtime of your gas processing facilities and liquefaction process trains

Improved low flow measurement with Vortex flowmeters

• Improved signal processing leads to optimum turndown: Starts measur ing 16% lower in Reynolds than any other vortex flowmeter in the market. Versions with integrated two-line size reduction measure 76% lower • Most linear vortex body with flat ac curacy down to Reynolds no 10,000 • PremiumCal guarantees excel lent measuring accuracy +/- 0.65% (liquids) / +/- 0.9% (gas) enabling highest availability of your LNG plant at low flow rates

Vortex flowmeters have become the workhorse in LNG plants for both liquid and gas applications. Vortex flowme ter from Endress+Hauser is an excellent choice because of its robustness against temperature shock and vibration, and its multivariable (P+T) options. Most vortex flowmeters lose signal at low flows and measure inaccurately below a Reynolds number of 20,000. We help to overcome these challenges and more.

Gas sweetening processes remove acid gases (H 2 S and CO 2 ) from sour gas to meet specifications. Measuring H 2 S and CO 2 concentrations in sour gas at the inlet and sweet gas at the outlet of amine treatments units is important for control and optimization of the treatment process, to ensure the quality and prevent potential dam age to plant equipment. TDLAS analyzers have been proven to be highly effective in these critical measurements. • Exceptionally fast response to H 2 S and CO 2 con centration changes, an important performance characteristic for control of amine treatment units • Patented Differential Spectroscopy technique measures H 2 S at low ppm levels • Low maintenance and operational costs, as no cylinders of carrier and combustion gases, or lead acetate tape are required to perform measurements • Non-contact laser measurement avoids fouling and corrosion for reliable long-term operation of your LNG plant On-line monitoring of H 2 S and CO 2 in gas sweetening

Composition measurement of liquefied natural gas (LNG)

Accurate measurement of the composition of liquefied natural gas is necessary for calculating the energy content (BTU value and Wobbe index) and monetary value of the fuel during production and at downstream custody transfer points. In baseload LNG plants composition measurement of liquefaction rundown to storage tanks facilitates process control to avoid off-spec product. Composition measure ment is essential to transactions in LNG import / export terminals, marine bunkering, and truck loading operations. The Kaiser Raman analyzer measures LNG composi tion directly in the cryogenic liquid, in real-time, without the need to vaporize a sample for analysis. Eliminating the vaporization step required for gas chromatography reduces analysis time from minutes to seconds, and sig nificantly improves measurement accuracy. • Pilot™ cryogenic probe enables direct measurement in the LNG stream without sample extraction and need for vaporization • Raman Analyzer Field Calibration Tool verifies trans mission intensity and calibration as described in GIIGNL custody transfer handbook

10,000: The lowest Reynolds number any vortex meter starts to measure with a linear output, offering increased rangeability and availability

18 Competences in Gas

High plant availability


LNG bunkering

LNG Bunkering is the process of providing liquefied natural gas fuel to a ship for its own consumption. Key advantage of LNG as a fuel is the reduction in pollutants in comparison with other traditional bunker fuels. There are various methods of LNG bunkering: truck to-ship, ship-to-ship and fixed in stallation-to-ship. Challenges with LNG bunkering are the cryogenic conditions, varying compositions and handling of vapor during bun kering. Custody transfer in bunker ing involves measurement of mass of bunker, density and calorific value of bunker transferred. • Precise and reliable quantity measurement with Coriolis mass flowmeter optimized for cryo genic applications • Fast, accurate measurement of LNG composition with a Kaiser Raman analyzer for measur ing quantity and calorific value directly in the LNG stream • Seamless integration to bunker computer for all relevant calcu lation and reports

IloT - Digitalization Harness the power of connected data and move towards your digital future. To achieve the outcomes you care about, the huge amount of data from your field devices needs to be analyzed and translated into actionable knowl edge. For this we developed our Netilion IIoT ecosystem and portfolio of web and smartphone apps. Netilion unlocks the full potential of your instruments to give you the insight you need to vastly im prove maintenance efficiency, enable the deployment of preventive and predictive maintenance strategies, and optimize your processes over the entire life cycle.

Precise temperature measurement plays a vital role in gas processing facilities. Tem perature differences more than the stipu lated limits between the natural gas and amine / glycol entering the contactor in gas sweetening and dehydration units results in gas condensation, foaming and losses. Also, reliable monitoring of temperature across the heat exchanger walls is required to detect fouling. Our robust temperature transmitters minimize plant downtime with innovative and leading technology. Temperature measurement in natural gas processing

• Sensor backup in case of failure without interruption of the measured value • Sensor drift and corrosion detection • Wide range of thermowell offering as per global standards • Surface temperature measurement of pipe and tube walls • Innovative StrongSens for shock and vibra tion resistance > 60g

Netilion has been certified with a 4-star rating by EuroCloud


Competences in Gas

High plant availability


Innovative measuring technologies Endress+Hauser takes pride in being one of the most innovative companies in the process automation industry. We currently hold approxi mately 7,800 patents and other intellectual property rights. About one-third of recent new patents are related to the IIoT, digital communi cations, diagnostics and electronics. We reinvest more than 7 percent of our revenues into R&D.

Up to 1600 USD per meter can be the annual maintenance cost for a mechanical flowmeter

Device diagnostics, verification, and monitoring

A range of our intelligent field devices feature Heartbeat Technology that increases plant availability and ensures high process safety with its unique integrated diagnostics, verification and monitoring capabilities. • Permanent instrument self-diagnosis provides an ongoing health check of your devices and processes • Verify that your devices are functioning prop erly anytime, anywhere and without process interruption • Heartbeat’s monitoring function provides detailed instrument and process data permit ting trend analysis, making predictive mainte nance possible • Netilion , our IIoT ecosystem and portfolio of intelligent apps, builds upon Heartbeat data to give you even greater insight and benefits

Cryogenic flow applications in an LNG liquefaction plant bring measurement challenges due to two-phase flow con ditions. Variations in temperature and pressure drop result in vaporization and entrained gas that cause under- or over-reading or stops the measurement altogether. Our in novative Coriolis mass flowmeters offer a unique solution for entrained gas applications. Patented multi-frequency technology ensures reliable and continuous measurement, real time data and high availability. Precision flow measurement for entrained gas applications

• High precision measurement of density, mass and volume flow even in the presence of entrained gas • LNG Custody transfer approvals OIML R117 and MI-005 • No maintenance and compact design enabling installa tion flexibility


Competences in Gas




Customer challenge: To measure the moisture in ppb level, an LNG liquefac tion plant based in the Middle East was operating the molecular sieve driers on time basis instead of measur ing the actual H 2 0 breakthrough. If the H 2 O analyzer doesn’t pick up any H 2 O breakthrough during the normal operation, it will end up in challenges in the down stream, causing a breakdown of the equipment in the liquification process. Operational challenges also include efficiency and energy loss and lifetime of molecular sieve. Our solution: Thanks to the installation of Endress+Hauser’s TDLAS analyzers (differential spectroscopy) at the common outlet, the driers are now operated based on actual H 2 O breakthrough, saving energy and extending the life of the molsieve. As the analyzers detect breakthroughs as low as at 0.06 ppm, the measurements are highly reli able. A built-in permeation device enables the on-field validation, helping the customer to check the perfor mance of the analyzer. Reliable trace moisture measurement in molecular sieve drier outlet

Customer challenge: A liquified natural gas plant in the US, transitioning from an import to export facility, was looking for a reliable partner during the design, engineering and execution phase of the project. The goal was to reduce the com plexity of the project management by dealing with as few suppliers as possible. Our solution: Endress+Hauser was involved in the early phase of the project with a wide portfolio of products, solutions and services. We offered a complete field instrumentation portfolio covering flow, level, pressure, temperature transmitters and analyzers. We enabled our customer to deal with a single party instead of multiple sup pliers thereby minimizing the complexities in project management. Simplified project management by relying on a single supplier

Customer benefit: • Easier project management • Simplified documentation plan • Local support

Customer benefit: • Increased drier efficiency • Extended molsieve lifespan • Fast and reliable measurement • Energy savings

… and how can we help to improve your processes? Visit us at www.endress.com/oil-gas



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